The Borg are a highly advanced technological power that thrives on conquest. Though there is evidence of Borg reproduction, their population and technological growth appears to come from “assimilating” humanoids and their knowledge.
The Borg expand their population, knowledge and territory by conquest of all races with which they have contact. This expansion is accomplished by massive, cube-shaped ships carrying populations estimated to be in at least the tens of thousands, which travel outwards from Borg territory to assimilate everything in their path.
Though often represented by a “Queen”, the Borg share a single consciousness, with no single leader, acting as a single entity, this single consciousness allows them to adapt and remodulate their weapons and shielding systems extremely fast, normally faster than most starships can remodulate their weapons and shields, this makes even a single Borg Cube a deadly opponent as shown at the battle of Wolf 359 where a single Cube on a direct course with Earth decimated the fleet sent to intercept it.
The Borg seem to be driven by only one other goal than conquest, they seek the Omega Molecule, a short lived, very complex and highly unstable particle with the potential to provide vast amounts of power.
The Borg are known to have been in existence in 2063, when a Borg incursion from the 24th century tried to contact the Borg of that time. This attempt was stopped by the USS Enterprise-E. Two centuries later, the Borg attacked the El'Aurians and nearly exterminated their race, scattering the survivors throughout the galaxy.
First Official contact with the Borg was made in 2365 by the USS Enterprise-D when a being known as Q transported the ship into the Delta Quadrant. They then made their first appearance in the Alpha Quadrant a year later when a Borg Cube achieved Earth Orbit after the battle of Wolf 359, the Borg Cube was destroyed by the USS Enterprise D.
In 2369, the android Lore (Brother of Lieutenant Commander Data, a Soong-Type Android) led a group of Borg, separated from the Collective after an introduction to the concept of individuality (inadvertently by the crew of the USS Enterprise-D through the captured Borg Drone Hugh). This group attacked Federation space before being stopped by the USS Enterprise-D, which removed Lore and his influence. The fate of these Borg is as of now unknown.
USS Voyager, while lost in the Delta Quadrant, encountered the Borg and their territory repeatedly. Borg conquest in the Delta Quadrant appears to cover thousands of systems, linked by Transwarp Conduits.
The Borg have only encountered one species that consider to be a serious threat, Species 8472. Borg Drones still resemble the race they were at the time of assimilation, their skin is drained and lifeless, they always have a multitude of cybernetic implants that enhance their strength. Upon assimilation, a drone would cease to grow body hair and develop an ashen, greyish skin coloration. Cybernetic implants would be either surgically attached to the body or grown internally by nano probes injected into the bloodstream. The nature of these implants varied from drone to drone, depending on its intended function. In certain cases, parts of the body such as an eye or an
arm would be amputated altogether to make room for the cybernetics. The implants of a fully assimilated drone allowed it to function for extended periods without shelter, food, water, or even air. A drone's only requirement would be a supply of energy to maintain the implants that in turn maintained its biological functions. This energy would be supplied during regeneration cycles within a Borg alcove.
Borg drones were equipped with a myriad of technologies integrated into their bodies which enabled them to perform their duties within the Collective, several of which were universal to all drones. A neural transceiver kept them connected to the Collective. A personal force field protected each drone from most energy-based attacks. As of 2373, each drone possessed a pair of assimilation tubules embedded in one hand for the purpose of instantly injecting individuals with Borg nano probes. A cortical processor allowed a drone to rapidly assimilate visual information. Borg drones were also equipped with a neural processor, which kept a record of every instruction that particular Borg receives from the collective hive mind. Captain Picard used this processor to discover the Borg were attempting to use the Enterprise-E deflector dish as an Interplexing Beacon to contact the Borg in 2063.
Drones also contained failsafes designed to deactivate and even vaporize their own bodies, thereby allowing the Collective to eliminate damaged or dead drones without leaving remains to be exploited by outsiders. The captured drone Third of Five also made comments indicating that this vaporization may have been a form of resource re-absorption. One of these failsafes was intended to automatically deactivate drones experiencing strong emotional states, which the Borg interpreted as a sign of disconnection from the hive mind.
When dealing with the Borg it is advised that when discovered on long range sensors, Starfleet Command is alerted as soon as possible and the ship that discovers them should monitor at long range or perform hit and run attacks if there is a safe place for them to hide, Do Not under any circumstances attempt to go one on one with a Borg ship. Monitor or hit and run until a fleet can be organized to destroy the Borg ship